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艺品在线2020精品推荐第5期:铜胎雕漆缠枝花卉纹瓶一对

时间:2020-09-03 19:19    来源:软广     浏览次数:119

雕漆剔红系据考始于唐代,经历代艺人们的继承和发展,品种丰富,技艺精湛,成为我国优秀的艺术瑰宝。此铜胎雕漆缠枝花卉纹瓶一对,器型周正巧妙,做工细腻精致,周身雕刻缠枝花卉纹,布局严谨而有法度,工整庄重,一派皇家气度。极尽华美,夺人珠目。

According to the research, the system of carving lacquer and picking red began in Tang Dynasty, and experienced the inheritance and development of generations of artists. It is rich in variety and exquisite in skills, and has become an outstanding artistic treasure in China. This pair of bronze-tire carved lacquer flower pattern bottles is well-formed and exquisite in workmanship. The whole body is carved with flower pattern. The layout is rigorous and legal, neat and solemn, with royal bearing. Extremely gorgeous, winning people's eyes.

雕漆的工艺过程十分复杂,要经过设计、制胎、烧蓝、作地、涂漆、画工、雕刻、抛磨、做里、做旧10道工序。

The process of lacquer carving is very complicated, which involves 10 processes: design, tire making, blue burning, land making, painting, painting, carving, polishing, lining and old making.

据明代黄成的《髹饰录》记载,雕漆发源于唐代的四川、云南一带,但是人们后来没有见到过唐代的雕漆作品。

According to Huang Cheng's Zhuan Shi Lu in Ming Dynasty, carved lacquer originated in Sichuan and Yunnan in Tang Dynasty, but people have never seen carved lacquer works in Tang Dynasty.

 

宋代是雕漆工艺的发展时期。“剔红”和“剔犀”都已经出现。北京故宫博物院藏有一件精致的剔红传世品《桂花纹剔红盒》,日本圆觉寺也藏有东渡日本的宋代遗民许子元携去的《醉翁亭图朱锦地剔黑盘》。剔犀工艺在宋代已经十分成熟,在江苏武进和山西大同等地的南宋、金代墓葬中都出土了为数不少的剔犀器具。比如,出土于江苏金坛南宋周 墓的《剔犀执镜盒》便是一件技艺纯熟的作品,镜盒直径15.4厘米,长27厘米,木胎,漆层肥厚,刀口圆熟,现藏于常州市博物馆。出土时,盒子内部还有一把执镜,可见,当时富有的人家在日常生活中已经十分钟情于雕漆制品了。

Song Dynasty is the development period of lacquer carving technology. "Picking red" and "picking rhinoceros" have already appeared. The Palace Museum in Beijing has a delicate red picking box handed down from ancient times, and Yuanjue Temple in Japan also has a black plate picked by Zuiweng Pavilion and Zhu Jindi, which was brought by Xu Ziyuan, a remnant of Song Dynasty who traveled to Japan. The rhinoceros picking process was very mature in Song Dynasty, and many rhinoceros picking instruments were unearthed in Southern Song Dynasty and Jin Dynasty tombs in Wujin, Jiangsu Province and Datong, Shanxi Province. For example, "Picking Rhinoceros and Holding Mirror Box", which was unearthed in the Tomb of Southern Song Dynasty in Jintan, Jiangsu Province, is a skillful work. The mirror box has a diameter of 15.4 cm and a length of 27 cm. It has a wooden tire, thick paint layer and round blade, and is now in Changzhou Museum. When unearthed, there was a mirror inside the box. It can be seen that wealthy families at that time were already very fond of carved lacquer products in their daily life.

元代,雕漆工艺随着工匠的流动,由浙江嘉兴等地传入了北京。由于元代的工匠会在他们的作品的底部刻上名字。他们制造了大量优秀的作品,后来许多珍藏在故宫博物院。元代的雕漆技艺通过艺人们的世代相传延续到了明代。明代初期,由于皇宫及国礼需求日增,皇宫“御用监”在京城专门设置了制作漆器的作坊——果园厂,并召请元代艺人张成之子张德刚主持。全国各地的优秀工匠被汇聚到北京,雕漆艺人们的辛勤钻研,相互切磋,雕漆技艺日臻完善,不同的制造工艺和艺术风格相互融合,最终创造出了北京雕漆工艺的独特面貌。在艺术上,果园厂早期制造的雕漆制品注重磨工,光润、古朴、浑厚,是以前的雕漆无法比拟的。明末,雕漆制造经过了一段时期萎缩后,至清初,雕漆工艺又开始兴盛。

In Yuan Dynasty, with the flow of craftsmen, lacquer carving technology was introduced to Beijing from Jiaxing, Zhejiang and other places. Because craftsmen in Yuan Dynasty would engrave their names on the bottom of their works. They produced a large number of excellent works, many of which were later collected in the Palace Museum. The lacquer carving skills of Yuan Dynasty continued to Ming Dynasty through generations of artists. In the early Ming Dynasty, due to the increasing demand for the imperial palace and state ceremonies, the Royal Supervisor of the imperial palace specially set up a workshop for making lacquerware in Beijing, and invited Zhang Degang, son of Zhang Cheng, an artist of Yuan Dynasty, to preside over it. Excellent craftsmen from all over the country were gathered in Beijing. Lacquer artists studied hard and exchanged ideas with each other. Lacquer carving skills improved day by day, and different manufacturing techniques and artistic styles merged with each other, finally creating a unique face of Beijing lacquer carving technology. In art, the carved lacquer products made by Orchard Factory in the early days pay attention to grinding, which is smooth, simple and vigorous, and can't be compared with the previous carved lacquer. At the end of Ming Dynasty, after a period of shrinking, the lacquer carving technology began to flourish again in the early Qing Dynasty.

清代的雕漆工艺继明代的果园厂之后设立了造办处漆作,从事雕漆等漆艺制品的专门生产。清代的雕漆由于其造价高昂,多系皇家造办处产品。清中期,由于乾隆皇帝的喜爱,宫廷监制了大量的雕漆作品,大如屏风、几踏、桌椅,小到瓶、罐、盒、盘乃至日常摆设,应有尽有。这一时期的雕漆作品构图严谨,雕工精细,图案繁缛,工艺复杂,形成了雍容华贵、工细柔丽的艺术风格。

Carving and Lacquering Technology in Qing Dynasty After the Orchard Factory in Ming Dynasty, a paint office was set up to specialize in the production of lacquer products such as carving and lacquer. Because of its high cost, carved lacquer in Qing Dynasty was mostly produced by the Royal Manufacturing Office. In the mid-Qing Dynasty, due to the love of Emperor Qianlong, the court produced a large number of carved lacquer works, ranging from screens, treads, tables and chairs to bottles, cans, boxes, trays and even daily furnishings. In this period, the carved lacquer works have strict composition, fine carving, complex patterns and complex techniques, forming a graceful and elegant artistic style.

较之明代,清代的雕漆有许多显著的特点。明代雕漆漆色暗红,清代鲜红;明代雕漆刀法圆润,多磨光,清代则刀痕显露,不打磨;明代的雕漆花纹庄重浑厚,清代则繁缛纤细。此外,明代雕漆的胎骨多为木胎,清代则兼有瓷胎、紫砂胎、皮胎等。清代雕漆亦多剔彩,工匠们常刻出两色锦地以增加色彩的变化。从题材上看,清代的北京雕漆在花卉蔬果题材的基础上又增加了许多寓意吉祥、歌颂太平盛世的题材,图案空间的处理也普遍采用了开光的形式。

Compared with the Ming Dynasty, the lacquer carving in Qing Dynasty has many remarkable characteristics. The lacquer color of Ming Dynasty is dark red and bright red in Qing Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, the lacquer carving knife method was round and polished, while in the Qing Dynasty, the knife marks were exposed and not polished; Carved lacquer patterns in Ming Dynasty were solemn and vigorous, while those in Qing Dynasty were elaborate and slender. In addition, the fetal bones carved with lacquer in Ming Dynasty are mostly wooden ones, while in Qing Dynasty, there are porcelain ones, purple sand ones and leather ones. In Qing Dynasty, carved lacquer was often carved with colors, and craftsmen often carved two-color brocade lands to increase the color change. From the subject matter point of view, Beijing carved lacquer in Qing Dynasty added a lot of themes which implied good fortune and celebrated the peaceful and prosperous times on the basis of flowers, fruits and vegetables, and the pattern space was generally treated in the form of lighting.

明、清两代所产的雕漆制品后来多藏于北京故宫博物院、台北故宫博物院、南京博物院、辽宁省博物馆、上海市博物馆等处。乾隆之后,随着国力的衰退,雕漆的制作日益萎缩。到了清末,政治动荡,经济衰退,皇宫对雕漆器需求锐减,致使雕漆制造一度中断,雕漆技艺近乎失传。

Carved lacquer products produced in Ming and Qing Dynasties were later collected in Beijing Palace Museum, Taipei Palace Museum, Nanjing Museum, Liaoning Provincial Museum and Shanghai Museum. After Qianlong, with the decline of national strength, the production of carved lacquer was shrinking day by day. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, the political turmoil and economic recession caused the demand for lacquer ware in the imperial palace to drop sharply, which led to the interruption of lacquer ware manufacturing and the loss of lacquer ware skills.

 

建国以后,雕漆产业再次繁荣,并且产业成熟,有一大批从事雕漆行业的手工艺者,并制作出了相当数量的雕漆制品。虽然大部分雕漆产品销往海外,但是随着人们逐渐开始认识雕漆,会有越来越多的国内外藏家出手收藏。这就决定了雕漆升值的基础——足够的收藏者和爱好者。当这个圈子大到一定程度的时候,雕漆的身价将与日俱增。

After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the lacquer carving industry prospered again and matured. There were a large number of craftsmen engaged in lacquer carving industry and produced a considerable number of lacquer carving products. Although most carved lacquer products are sold overseas, as people begin to know carved lacquer gradually, more and more collectors at home and abroad will collect it. This determines the basis for the appreciation of carved lacquer-enough collectors and lovers. When this circle reaches a certain level, the value of carved lacquer will increase day by day.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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